Neptune's Formation May Have Been Smoother Than We Thought

The formation of the Solar System is often seen as a messy and chaotic affair, with the seeds of the future planets in a gravitational tug of war, which might have even thrown out a few objects. Amidst all the chaos, it appears that Neptune had a more relaxed upbringing.

According to a paper published in Nature Astronomy, the deep blue giant got to its current location 30 AU away from the Sun after smoothly transitioning from 20 AU (AU means Astronomical Units, and 1 AU is the distance between Earth and the Sun).

The crucial clue for this discovery is related to a curious type of object found in the Kuiper Belt, a region of icy rocks at the edge of the Solar System with 1,700 known objects. Almost all of these are red in color, but an international team of astronomers led by Dr Wes Fraser from Queen’s University Belfast instead looked at a handful of odd blue planetoid pairs. 

It was thought that blue binaries formed in the heart of the Kuiper Belt, but the latest observations suggest that they actually formed much closer to the Sun, being slowly pushed out by Neptune’s gravitational nudges. Neptune’s movement must have been smooth otherwise the binary planetoids would have been disrupted into two separate objects.

“This research has opened the window to new aspects of understanding the early stages of planet growth. We now have a solid handle on how and where these blue binaries originated,” Dr Fraser said in a statement. “There has been some evidence around how Neptune moved outwards to 30 AU. Our hypothesis about how these blue binaries came to be where they are requires that Neptune’s migration was largely a smooth and calm movement.”

Artist impression of a blue planetoid pair in the Kuiper Belt. Gemini Observatory/AURA, artwork by Joy Pollard.

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